Citing Resources in APA Style

When you are writing your assignment or creating a presentation, you are likely to use existing works such as current researches or online images. By citing the source of the works that you have used, you avoid plagiarism which is a serious offense and could lead to academic and legal consequences.

The APA Referencing Style is the required style used in YCCECE. If you are not sure whether you are citing someone's work correctly, ask the librarians!

In-text Citation

How to write an in-text citation?

Type of citation First citation in-text Subsequent citations in-text Parenthetical format, first citation in-text Parenthetical format, subsequent citations in-text
One work by 1 author Walker (2007) Walker (2007) (Walker, 2007) (Walker, 2007)
One work by 2 authors Walker and Allen (2004) Walker and Allen (2004) (Walker & Allen, 2004) (Walker & Allen, 2004)
One work by 3 - 5 authors Bradley, Ramirez and Soo (1999) Bradley et al. (Bradley, Ramirez, & Soo, 1999) (Bradley et al., 1999)
One work by 6 or more authors Wasserstein et al. (2005) Wasserstein et al. (2005) (Wasserstein et al., 2005) (Wasserstein et al., 2005)
Group as authors (Can be identified through abbreviation) National Association for the Education of Young Children (2003) NAEYC (2003) (National Association for the Education of Young Children, 2003) (NAEYC, 2003)
Group as authors (No abbreviation) University of Pittsburgh (2005) University of Pittsburgh (2005) (University of Pittsburgh, 2005) (University of Pittsburgh, 2005)

Note. Reprinted [adapted] from Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (p. 177), by American Psychological Association, 2010, Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Copyright Year by "American Psychological Association".
Please note that the table content is slightly modified for illustration purpose.

References & Examples

Book

Last, F. M. (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle of book (edition). Place of Publication: Publisher.

Last, F. M.
Author's Last name, First name initial. Middle name initial.

(Year of Publication).
The year the book is published.


Title of book: Subtitle of book
Capitalized the first word in Title and Subtitle and make them Italic. If there is no edition, put a full-stop at the end of the title.


(edition).
Only add edition information when it is the 2nd edition or above.


Place of Publication:
The place where the publisher is at


Publisher.
The publisher name


Examples

Berk, L. E. (2013). Child development (9th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.

Marotz, L. R., & Allen, K. E. (2014). Developmental profiles: Pre-birth through adolescence (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.

James, C., Cameron, P. D., Smith, Y. N., Hawthorne, H., & Cushing, S., M. (2005). The sociological theory of people and places. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Book Chapter (in an Edited Book)

Last, F. M. (Year of Publication). Title of chapter or article. In Editor1 F. M. Last & Editor2 F. M. Last (Eds.), Title of book: Subtitle of book (edition, pp. xx-xx). Place of Publication: Publisher.

Last, F. M.
Author's Last name, First name initial. Middle name initial.

(Year of Publication).
Publication year

Title of the chapter: Subtitle of chapter
Chapter title: Capitalized the first word in chapter title and subtitle

In Editor1 F. M. Last & Editor2 F. M. Last (Eds.),
The book editor's First name initial. Middle name initial. and Last name. Notice that there is a comma after (Ed.).. If there is only one editor, put (Ed.)., if there is more than one editor, put (Eds.),

Title of book: Subtitle of book
The book the chapter is in. Capitalized the first word in Title and Subtitle and make them Italic.

(edition, pp. xx-xx)
Only add edition information when it is the 2nd edition or above, and add the chapter's page numbers

Place of Publication:
The place where the publisher is at

Publisher.
The publisher name

Examples

Yuen, G. (2010). The displaced early childhood education in the postcolonial era of Hong Kong. In N. Yelland (Ed.), Contemporary perspectives on early childhood education (pp. 83-99). Maidenhead, United Kingdom: Open University Press.

Abecedarian project. (2016). In D. Couchenour & J. K. Chrisman (Eds.), The Sage encyclopedia of contemporary early childhood education (Vol. 1, pp. 1-13). London, United Kingdom: Sage.

Journal Article

Last, F. M. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle of article. Name of Journal, volume(issue), page-page. doi: xxxxxxxxxx

Last, F. M.
Author's Last name, First name initial. Middle name initial.

(Year of Publication).
Publication year

Title of article: Subtitle of the article
Capitalized the first word in chapter title and subtitle

Name of Journal, 
Follow the capitalization of the journal name, make it italic and end with a comma.

volume(issue), 
Volume needs to be in italic, leaves no space and directly add the issue in round brackets. End with a comma.

page-page.
The page numbers of the article in the journal. Put a full-stop at the end.

doi:
xxxxxxxx
DOI means Digital Object Identifier. It is an unique ID for articles. If there is a doi found (looks like 10.1080/xxxxxx), include it at the end. No full-stop required after the doi.

Examples

Thornton, C., & Underwood, K. (2013). Conceptualisations of disability and inclusion: Perspectives of educators of young children. Early Years: An International Research Journal, 33(1), 59-73. doi: 10.1080/09575146.2012.682975

Cheng, M., & Yuen, H. K. (2018). Student continuance of learning management system use: A longitudinal exploration. Computers & Education, 120, 241-253.

 

Website or Online Resources

Last, F. M. (Date of Publication). Title of work. Retrieved from URL

Last, F. M.
Author's Last name, First name initial. Middle name initial.

(Date of Publication).
In YYYY, Full-Month DD format. If there is only the year, simply put the year. If there is no date, put (n.d.).

Title of work.
Capitalized the first word in chapter title and subtitle.

Retrieved from
URL
Add the URL of the online source

Examples

Education Bureau. (2013). School self-evaluation manual. Retrieved from http://www.edb.gov.hk/attachment/en/edu-system/preprimary-kindergarten/quality-assurance-framework/sse/SSE_Manual_Eng.pdf

Life Span Development Lab. (2013). Early literacy for Chinese children. Retrieved from http://chineseearlyliteracy.co.nr/

Newspaper Article

Last, F. M. (Date of Publication). News article title. Newspaper Title, edition, section, pages (p. xx-xx).

Last, F. M.
Author's Last name, First name initial. Middle name initial.

(Date of Publication).
In YYYY, Full-Month DD format. If there is only the year, simply put the year. If there is no date, put (n.d.).

News article title.
Capitalized the first word in chapter title and subtitle.

Newspaper Title,
Follow the capitalization of the journal name, make it italic and end with a comma.

edition, section,
Edition or section of the newspaper (if any)

pages (p.
xx-xx).
The page where the news article is at.

If it is an online newspaper article

Last, F. M. (Date of Publication). News article title. Newspaper Title. Retrieved from URL

Newspaper Title,
Follow the capitalization of the journal name, make it italic and end with a full-stop.

Retrieved from 
URL
Add the URL of the online news article.

Examples

Chen, L. (2019, June 11). Senior Chinese law researcher target of PhD plagiarism claims. South China Morning Post. Retrieved from https://www.scmp.com/news/china/society/article/3014001/senior-chinese-law-researcher-target-phd-plagiarism-claims

Video

Last name, F. M. (Producer), & Last, F. M. (Director). (Year). Title of video [Mode]. City of origin: Studio or distributor.

Last, F. M.
Author's Last name, First name initial. Middle name initial.

(Producer),
Indicating the role of the producer in round bracket. If there are other roles e.g. Director, end with a comma. If there is no other role, end with a full-stop.

(Director).
Indicating the role of the director (if any) in round bracket.

(Year)
Year the video is published or released.

Title of video
Title of the video in italic.

[Mode].
The format of the video in square bracket and ends with a full-stop. E.g. [DVD]. [Video file].

City of origin:
The location of the video's studio or distributor, ends with a colon.

Studio or distributor.
The name of the video's studio or distributor, ends with a full-stop.

If the video is online, e.g. from YouTube

Last, F. M. (Date of publication). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from URL

Retrieved from URL
If it is an online video, simply replace the City of origin and Studio or Distributor and add the online link.

Examples

Berlowitz, V. (Producer). (2012). Frozen planet [DVD]. London: BBC Worldwide Limited.

Heroman, C. (2017). Webinar: Back to school-making and tinkering with STEAM [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M67tDikVU6Q

Music Recording

Songwriter Last, F. M. (Copyright year). Title of song [Recorded by artist]. On Title of album [Medium of recording]. Location: Label. (Date of recording if different than song's copyright date)

Songwriter Last, F. M.
The songwriter's Last name, First name initial. Middle name initial.

(Copyright year).
The copyright year of the song 

Title of song
The song title, capitalized only the first word of the title.

[Recorded by artist].
The song recording artist if it is different from the songwriter. In square brackets and ends with a full-stop.

On Title of album
The word "On" must be in-place. Followed by the album title in italic.

[Medium of recording].
The format of the song in square bracket and ends with a full-stop. E.g. [CD]. [Cassette].

Location:
The location of the music studio or distributor, ends with a colon.

Label.
The name of the music label or publisher, ends with a full-stop.

(Date of recording if different than song's copyright date)
If the song copyright year is different than the recording date, put the recording date in round brackets.

Examples

Turner, A. (2013). Do I wanna know? [Recorded by Artic Monkeys]. On AM [MP3 file]. London, England: Domino Records.

Brahms, J. (1868). Lullaby [Recorded by SPJ Music, Inc.]. On 25 Tranquil classics [CD]. Hauppauge, NY: SPJ Music, Inc. (2002).

Photograph / Online Image

Photograph

Photographer Last, F.M. (Photographer). (Year work was created). Title of photograph [Type of work]. Place of publication: Publisher/museum.

Photographer Last, F. M.
The photographer's Last name, First name initial. Middle name initial.

(Photographer).
Indicate the role of the photographer in round brackets and ends with a full-stop.

(Year work was created).
The year the photo was taken or created.

Title of photograph
The name of the photograph in italic.

[Type of work].
Indicate the type of work in square brackets and ends with a full-stop, e.g. [Photograph]. [Online image].

Place of publication:
The location of the photo's publisher.

Publisher/museum.
The name of the publisher or museum, ends with a full-stop.

Online Image

Last, F. M. (Year). Title of the image [Format]. Retrieved from URL

Retrieved from URL
If it is an online image, simply replace the Place of Publication and Publisher/Museum and add the image's online link.

Example

Child Development Services of Wyoming. (n.d.). The many benefits of early childhood development services [Online image]. Retrieved from http://www.cdswy.org/index.php?/pages/C12/

 

Chinese Materials

Chinese Materials

 There is no standardized Chinese citation style. The key is to be consistent when you create references. Please check with your lecturer which style is preferred for Chinese materials citation. Here are some ways to cite Chinese language materials:

一個作者:

王勤(1995《漢語修辭通論》,武漢,華中理工大學出版社。

兩個或以上作者:

石定栩、邵敬敏、朱志瑜(2006):《港式中文與標準中文的比較》香港香港教育圖書

編者:

李衍華(編)(1993《說話的邏輯與技巧》,北京,中國人民出版社。

邵敬敏(主編)(2002):《現代漢語通論》,上海,上海教育出版社

版本:

李家樹(1991):《語文研究和語文教學(增訂本)》,香港,商務印書館。

Other Libraries' Resources on Chinese Citation Styles (引證中文資料)

Construct & Format Your Paper

Basic Document Set-up

Font family Times New Roman
Font size 12 pt
Line spacing Double or 2.0
Margin Default Microsoft Word margin or at least 2.54 cm at the top, bottom, left, and right of every page
Paragraphs & Indentation Indent the first line of every paragraph, except for Abstract
Page number On the top right corner

Basic Elements in a Research Article

A research paper usually consists of the following elements:
  1. Title
  2. Running Head
  3. Author's Name and Author's Institution
  4. Abstract
  5. Introduction
  6. Method
  7. Result
  8. Discussion
  9. Conclusion
  10. References
  11. Appendix and Supplementary materials

Cover, Abstract, Body, References & Appendix

Cover page

The cover page consists of:

1. Title
2. Running Head
3. Author's Name and Author's Institution

  • Title - Centered AND with each word capitalized
  • Running Head - Put on the header area on each page AND capitalized ALL word
    (ATTENTION: The word "Running head:" need only to be included on the cover page; from page two onward, simply put the shortened title)
    • What is a Running Head? The running head is a shortened version of the paper’s full title, and it is used to help readers identify the title of the article.

How to add Running head in the Header area in Microsoft Word?

In the Insert tab, click "Header" and then select "Edit Header"
enter header

Check the box next to "Different First Page"
enter header

Enter the running head on the cover page with the word "Running head: XXXXXXXX"
enter header

Scroll down to the second page and enter the running head title without the word "Running head:"
enter header

  • Author's Name and Author's Institution - Centered your name in this format: First Middle Surname AND centered your institution name in a new line
    • If the paper is co-written, include also the co-author's

Abstract page

After creating the cover page,

  • Begin the abstract on a new page
  • Put the label "Abstract" in uppercase and lowercase letters, centered, and at the top of the page
  • The running head title should already be set up. If not, please refer to the Cover Page section above and click "How to add Running head in the Header area in Microsoft Word?".

Body

The body consists of:

1. Title
2. Running head
3. Introduction, Method, Result, Discussion, Conclusion

  • Title - Include the full title again on the top AND use uppercase and lowercase letters
  • Paragraph - Indent each paragraph
  • Levels of headings

 Level of Heading

Note. Reprinted [adapted] from Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (p. 62), by American Psychological Association, 2010, Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Copyright Year by "American Psychological Association".

References

After completing your paper and creating your reference list (please refer to the above section on "References & Examples" on creating citation and references), it is time to format it to match the APA standard:

  • Begin the reference list on a new page
  • Put the label "References" in uppercase and lowercase letters, centered, and at the top of the page
  • Sort each entry in alphabetical order
  • Double-space all reference entries
  • Use the "Hanging indent" format for each reference entry (This mean the first line of each reference is set on the left and subsequent lines are indented)

How to sort the list alphabetically AND set Hanging Indent format in Microsoft Word?

Select the whole reference list and click the Sort button A-Z sort button on the Home tab

Simply click OK to the default sorting option.

enter header

Now the list is in alphabetical order, let's move on to applying the Hanging Indent format.

Open the Paragraph box by clicking the arrow icon on the bottom-right corner in the Paragraph section.
enter header

Under "Special:", choose "Hanging" and the default indentation will be automatically set to be 1.27cm. Then click OK.
enter header

Done! Your reference list is now sorted in alphabetical order and with hanging indentation applied.

Appendix and Supplementary materials

After completing the paper, you may have materials that you want to include to supplement your paper content.

  • Begin each appendix on a new page
  • Put the label "Appendix" in uppercase and lowercase letters, centered, and at the top of the page
  • Use an identifying capital letter (e.g., Appendix A, Appendix B, etc.) if you have more than one appendix

Sample paper

APA Sample paper produced by Purdue University: Click here

Library Resources on APA Referencing Style

Pocket guide to APA style / by Robert Perrin

Published by Cengage Learning

Reference Collection [Call number: BF 76.7 .P426 2015].

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association / by American Psychological Association

Published by American Psychological Association

Reference Collection [Call number: BF 76.7 .P83 2010].

Online APA Resources